(b) ALS inhibitors: The acetolactate synthase (ALS) enzyme (also known as acetohydroxyacid synthase, or AHAS) is the first step in the synthesis of the branched-chain amino acids (valine, leucine, and isoleucine). These herbicides slowly starve affected plants of these amino acids which eventually lead to inhibition of DNA synthesis. They affect grasses and dicots alike. The ALS inhibitor family includes sulfonylureas (SUs), imidazolinones (IMIs), triazolopyrimidines (TPs), pyrimidinyl oxybenzoates (POBs), and sulfonylamino carbonyl triazolinones (SCTs). ALS is a biological pathway that exists only in plants and not in animals thus making the ALS-inhibitors among the safest herbicides.
When R 27 =R 28 =R 29 =H, then the compound is cannabidiol. When R 27 =R 29 =H and R 28 =CH 3 , the compound is CBD monomethyl ether. When R 27 =R 28 =CH 3 and R 29 =H, the compound is CBD dimethyl ether. When R 27 =R 28 =COCH 3 and R 29 =H, the compound is CBD diacetate. When R 27 =H and R 28 =R 29 =COCH 3 , the compound is CBD monoacetate. The ischemic or neurodegenerative disease may be, for example, an ischemic infarct, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Down's syndrome, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) dementia, myocardial infarction, or treatment and prevention of intraoperative or perioperative hypoxic insults that can leave persistent neurological deficits following open heart surgery requiring heart/lung bypass machines, such as coronary artery bypass grafts (CABG).
The test compound/EGF mixture solution (5 μl) was added to the test enzyme solution (10 μl) and the mixture was incubated at 0°-4° C. for 30 minutes. The ATP/peptide mixture (10 μl) was added and the mixture was incubated at 25° C. for 10 minutes. The phosphorylation reaction was terminated by the addition of 5% trichloroacetic acid (40 μl ) and bovine serum albumin (BSA; 1 mg/ml, 5 μl). The mixture was allowed to stand at 4° C. for 30 minutes and then centrifuged. An aliquot (40 μl) of the supernatant was placed onto a strip of Whatman p 81 phosphocellulose paper. The strip was washed in 75 mM phosphoric acid (4×10 ml) and blotted dry. Radioactivity present in the filter paper was measured using a liquid scintillation counter (Sequence A). The reaction sequence was repeated in the absence of the EGF (Sequence B) and again in the absence of the test compound (Sequence C).